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解读乔布斯

乔布斯

史 蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)是苹果公司的现任首席运行官兼创办人之一,同时也是前Pixar动画公司的董事长及行政总裁(Pixar已在2006年被迪士尼收购)。乔布斯 还是迪士尼公司的董事会成员和最大个人股东。乔布斯被认为是计算机业界与娱乐业界的标志性人物,同时人们也把他视作麦金塔计算机、iPod、iTunes Store、iPhone等知名数字产品的缔造者。

1985年,乔布斯获得了由里根总统授予的国家级技术勋章;1997年成为《时代周刊》的封面 人物;同年被评为最成功的管理者,是声名显赫的“计算机狂人”。 2007年,史蒂夫·乔布斯被《财富》杂志评为了年度最伟大商人。2009年被财富杂志评选为这十年美国最佳CEO,同年当选时代周刊年度风云人物之一。

乔布斯的生涯极大地影响了硅谷风险创业的传奇,他将美学至上的设计理念在全世界推广开来。他对 简约及便利设计的推崇为他赢得了许多忠实追随者。乔布斯与沃兹尼亚克共同使个人计算机在70年代末至八十年代初流行开来,他也是第一个看到鼠标的商业潜力 的人。乔布斯在1985年苹果高层权力斗争中离开苹果并成立了NeXT公司,瞄准专业市场。1997年,苹果收购NeXT,乔布斯回到苹果接任首席运行 官。

 

 

史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)

职位:苹果联合创始人兼CEO

出生年月:1955年2月24日

父母:在婴儿时期被保罗·乔布斯(Paul Jobs)和克拉拉·乔布斯(Clara Jobs)领养,前者为一家激光公司的机械师,后者为会计师,两人均已过世。

教育程度:1972年毕业于加利福尼亚州洛斯阿图斯的Homestead高中,后入读俄勒冈州波特兰的里德学院,六个月后退学。

家庭:与妻子劳伦·鲍威尔(Laurene Powell)相逢于哈佛大学,1991年结婚,同为素食主义者。 乔布斯23岁时育有一女,名为莉萨·乔布斯(Lisa Jobs),但并未与其生母结婚,此后与劳伦育有三名子女。

居住地:加利福尼亚州帕罗奥多的英式红砖建筑,建于上个世纪30年代,价值约300万到500万美元,装修简陋。

外表:身材修长,喜穿牛仔裤、黑色套领毛衣和跑鞋。

爱好:被人称为神经高度紧张的工作狂,以其热情激励他人,拥有一个“现实扭曲场”,热衷于技术,事必躬亲,傲慢而偏执,有禅宗信徒一般让人镇静的力量。

偶像:惠普联合创始人戴维·帕卡德(Dave Packard),英特尔联合创始人鲍勃·诺伊斯(Bob Noyce)和安迪·格鲁夫(Andy Grove),以及歌星鲍勃·迪伦(Bob Dylan)。

朋友:加利福尼亚州前州长杰里·布朗(Jerry Brown)、甲骨文董事长拉里·埃里森(Lawrence J Ellison)和胞妹辛普森。

净资产:83亿美元(2011福布斯财富榜)

所获荣誉和奖项:1985年被里根总统授予国家技术奖章,1987年获杰斐逊公众服务奖,1989年被《公司》杂志评为“十年企业家”。

 

管理风格

乔布斯一上任就迅速砍掉了没有特色的业务。他告诉他的同僚,不必保证每个决定都是正确的,只要大多数的决定正确即可。因此不必害怕。有许多难以做出的决定,像砍掉无特色的业务,在今天看来十分明智,但当初做决定时却令人提心吊胆。

乔布斯有着火爆的管理风格,很多苹果职员多半不敢和他同乘电梯,唯恐电梯未坐完即被炒鱿鱼。但 年届中年的他现在的性情已圆融了许多。他说:“我告诉你一个能够改变你看问题的方法的例子。 一旦你有了孩子,就会自然而然地意识到每个人都是父母所生,应该有人像爱自己的孩子那样爱他们,这听起来并不深奥,但是许多人忽略了这一点。所以现在对我 而言,解雇苹果公司的员工要比以前痛苦得多,但我没有办法,这是我的工作。我设身处地地想象他们回到家中告诉妻子儿女自己被雇的情景,我从来没有像现在这 样感情用事过。”家庭美满或许是乔布斯事业成功的另一个原因。

乔布斯过去花许多时间寻找能够产生新产品的技术,但是现在由于工作的原因,不可能作深入的研究。他说有时在临睡前,会冒出一些平时想不到的点子。 他在因特网的六个新闻站点上登记注册,每天能收到大约300份电子邮件,一些素不相识的人在里面大谈他们的新构想。

经历了多年的工作以后,乔布斯说:“太多的事情令人感到遗憾,但最大的遗憾莫过于那些你没去做的事。如果我早点明白现在才明白的道理,我可以把事情做得更好些,但这又怎么样呢?关键是要把握好现在。生命是短暂的,不久以后我们都将走到尽头,这就是现实。”

 

 

乔布斯著名演讲:我生命中的三个故事

斯坦福是世界上最好的大学之一,今天能参加各位的毕业典礼,我备感荣幸。(尖叫声)我从来没有从大学毕业,说句实话,此时算是我离大学毕业最近的一刻。(笑声)今天,我想告诉你们我生命中的三个故事,并非什么了不得的大事件,只是三个小故事而已。

第一个故事 关于串起生命中的点点滴滴

退学是我这一生所做出的最正确的决定之一。我在里德大学待了6个月就退学了,但之后仍作为旁听生混了18个月后才最终离开。我为什么要退学呢?
故事要从我出生之前开始说起。我的生母是一名年轻的未婚妈妈,当时她还是一所大学的在读研究生,于是决定把我送给其他人收养。她坚持我应该被一对念过大学的夫妇收养,所以在我出生的时候,她已经为我被一个律师和他的太太收养做好了所有的准备。但在最后一刻,这对夫妇改了主意,决定收养一个女孩。候选名单上的另外一对夫妇,也就是我的养父母,在一天午夜接到了一通电话:“ 有一个不请自来的男婴,你们想收养吗?” 他们回答:“ 当然想。” 事后,我的生母才发现我的养母根本就没有从大学毕业,而我的养父甚至连高中都没有毕业,所以她拒绝签署最后的收养文件,直到几个月后,我的养父母保证会把我送到大学,她的态度才有所转变。
17 年之后,我真上了大学。但因为年幼无知,我选择了一所和斯坦福一样昂贵的大学,(笑声)我的父母都是工人阶级,他们倾其所有资助我的学业。在6个月之后,我发现自己完全不知道这样念下去究竟有什么用。当时,我的人生漫无目标,也不知道大学对我能起到什么帮助,为了念书,还花光了父母毕生的积蓄,所以我决定退学。我相信车到山前必有路。当时作这个决定的时候非常害怕,但现在回头去看,这是我这一生所做出的最正确的决定之一。(笑声)从我退学那一刻起,我就再也不用去上那些我毫无兴趣的必修课了,我开始旁听那些看来比较有意思的科目。
这件事情做起来一点都不浪漫。因为没有自己的宿舍,我只能睡在朋友房间的地板上;可乐瓶的押金是5 分钱,我把瓶子还回去好用押金买吃的;在每个周日的晚上,我都会步行7英里穿越市区,到HareKrishna教堂吃一顿大餐,我喜欢那儿的食物。
我跟随好奇心和直觉所做的事情,事后证明大多数都是极其珍贵的经验。
我举一个例子:那个时候,里德大学提供了全美国最好的书法教育。整个校园的每一张海报,每一个抽屉上的标签,都是漂亮的手写体。由于已经退学,不用再去上那些常规的课程,于是我选择了一个书法班,想学学怎么写出一手漂亮字。在这个班上,我学习了各种字体,如何改变不同字体组合之间的字间距,以及如何做出漂亮的版式。那是一种科学永远无法捕捉的充满美感、历史感和艺术感的微妙,我发现这太有意思了。
当时,我压根儿没想到这些知识会在我的生命中有什么实际运用价值;但是10 年之后,当我们设计第一款Macintosh 电脑的时候,这些东西全派上了用场。我把它们全部设计进了Mac ,这是第一台可以排出好看版式的电脑。如果当时我大学里没有旁听这门课程的话,Mac 就不会提供各种字体和等间距字体。自从Windows系统抄袭了Mac 以后,(鼓掌大笑)所有的个人电脑都有了这些东西。如果我没有退学,我就不会去书法班旁听,而今天的个人电脑大概也就不会有出色的版式功能。当然我在念大学的那会儿,不可能有先见之明,把那些生命中的点点滴滴都串起来;但10 年之后再回头看,生命的轨迹变得非常清楚。再强调一次,你不可能充满预见地将生命的点滴串联起来;只有在你回头看的时候,你才会发现这些点点滴滴之间的联系。所以,你要坚信,你现在所经历的将在你未来的生命中串联起来。你不得不相信某些东西,你的直觉、命运、生活、因缘际会…… 正是这种信仰让我不会失去希望,它让我的人生变得与众不同。

第二个故事 关于爱与失去

被苹果开掉是我这一生所经历过的最棒的事情。
我是幸运的,在年轻的时候就知道了自己爱做什么。在我20 岁的时候,就和沃兹在我父母的车库里开创了苹果电脑公司。我们勤奋工作,只用了10 年的时间,苹果电脑就从车库里的两个小伙子扩展成拥有4000 名员工,价值达到20 亿美元的企业。而在此之前的一年,我们刚推出了我们最好的产品Macintosh 电脑,当时我刚过而立之年。然后,我就被炒了鱿鱼。一个人怎么可以被他所创立的公司解雇呢?(笑声)这么说吧,随着苹果的成长,我们请了一个原本以为很能干的家伙和我一起管理这家公司,在头一年左右,他干得还不错,但后来,我们对公司未来的前景出现了分歧,于是我们之间出现了矛盾。由于公司的董事会站在他那一边,所以在我30 岁的时候,就被踢出了局。我失去了一直贯穿在我整个成年生活的重心,打击是毁灭性的。
在头几个月,我真不知道要做些什么。我觉得我让企业界的前辈们失望了,我失去了传到我手上的指挥棒。我遇到了戴维. 帕卡德(普惠的创办人之一 )和鲍勃. 诺伊斯(英特尔的创办人之一),我向他们道歉,因为我把事情搞砸了。我成了人人皆知的失败者,我甚至想过逃离硅谷。但曙光渐渐出现,我还是喜欢我做过的事情。在苹果电脑发生的一切丝毫没有改变我,一个比特都没有。虽然被抛弃了,但我的热忱不改。我决定重新开始。
我当时没有看出来,但事实证明,我被苹果开掉是我这一生所经历过的最棒的事情。成功的沉重被凤凰涅槃的轻盈所代替,每件事情都不再那么确定,我以自由之躯进入了我整个生命当中最有创意的时期。在接下来的5 年里,我开创了一家叫做NeXT 的公司,接着是一家名叫Pixar 的公司,并且结识了后来成为我妻子的曼妙女郎。Pixar 制作了世界上第一部全电脑动画电影《玩具总动员》,现在这家公司是世界上最成功的动画制作公司之一。(掌声)后来经历一系列的事件,苹果买下了NeXT ,于是我又回到了苹果,我们在NeXT 研发出的技术成为推动苹果复兴的核心动力。我和劳伦斯也拥有了美满的家庭。
我非常肯定,如果没有被苹果炒掉,这一切都不可能在我身上发生。生活有时候就像一块板砖拍向你的脑袋,但不要丧失信心。热爱我所从事的工作,是一直支持我不断前进的惟一理由。你得找出你的最爱,对工作如此,对爱人亦是如此。工作将占据你生命中相当大的一部分,从事你认为具有非凡意义的工作,方能给你带来真正的满足感。而从事一份伟大工作的惟一方法,就是去热爱这份工作。如果你到现在还没有找到这样一份工作,那么就继续找。不要安于现状,当万事了于心的时候,你就会知道何时能找到。如同任何伟大的浪漫关系一样,伟大的工作只会在岁月的酝酿中越陈越香。所以,在你终有所获之前,不要停下你寻觅的脚步。不要停下。

第三个故事 关于死亡

时间有限,所以不要把时间浪费在别人的生活里。
在17 岁的时候,我读过一句格言,好像是:“ 如果你把每一天都当成你生命里的最后一天,你将在某一天发现原来一切皆在掌握之中。” (笑声)这句话从我读到之日起,就对我产生了深远的影响。在过去的33 年里,我每天早晨都对着镜子问自己:“ 如果今天是我生命中的末日,我还愿意做我今天本来应该做的事情吗?” 当一连好多天答案都否定的时候,我就知道做出改变的时候到了。
提醒自己行将入土是我在面临人生中的重大抉择时,最为重要的工具。
因为所有的事情——外界的期望、所有的尊荣、对尴尬和失败的惧怕——在面对死亡的时候,都将烟消云散,只留下真正重要的东西。在我所知道的各种方法中,提醒自己即将死去是避免掉入畏惧失去这个陷阱的最好办法。人赤条条地来,赤条条地走,没有理由不听从你内心的呼唤。
大约一年前,我被诊断出癌症。在早晨7 :30 我做了一个检查,扫描结果清楚地显示我的胰脏出现了一个肿瘤。我当时甚至不知道胰脏究竟是什么。医生告诉我,几乎可以确定这是一种不治之症,顶多还能活3至6个月。大夫建议我回家,把诸事安排妥当,这是医生对临终病人的标准用语。这意味着你得把你今后10 年要对你的子女说的话用几个月的时间说完;这意味着你得把一切都安排妥当,尽可能减少你的家人在你身后的负担;这意味着向众人告别的时间到了。
我整天都想着诊断结果。那天晚上做了一个切片检查,医生把一个内窥镜从我的喉管伸进去,穿过我的胃进入肠道,将探针伸进胰脏,从肿瘤上取出了几个细胞。我打了镇静剂,但我的太太当时在场,她后来告诉我说,当大夫们从显微镜下观察了细胞组织之后,都哭了起来,因为那是非常罕见的,可以通过手术治疗的胰脏癌。我接受了手术,现在已经康复了。
这是我最接近死亡的一次,我希望在随后的几十年里,都不要有比这一次更接近死亡的经历。在经历了这次与死神擦肩而过的经验之后,死亡对我来说只是一项有效的判断工具,并且只是一个纯粹的理性概念,我能够更肯定地告诉你们以下事实:没人想死;即使想去天堂的人,也是希望能活着进去。(笑声)死亡是我们每个人的人生终点站,没人能够成为例外。生命就是如此,因为死亡很可能是生命最好的造物,它是生命更迭的媒介,送走耄耋老者,给新生代让路。现在你们还是新生代,但不久的将来你们也将逐渐老去,被送出人生的舞台。很抱歉说得这么富有戏剧性,但生命就是如此。
你们的时间有限,所以不要把时间浪费在别人的生活里。不要被条条框框束缚,否则你就生活在他人思考的结果里。不要让他人的观点所发出的噪音淹没你内心的声音。最为重要的是,要有遵从你的内心和直觉的勇气,它们可能已知道你其实想成为一个什么样的人。其他事物都是次要的。
在我年轻的时候,有一本非常棒的杂志叫《全球目录》(The Whole Earth Catalog),它被我们那一代人奉为圭臬。这本杂志的创办人是一个叫斯图尔特. 布兰德的家伙,他住在Menlo Park ,距离这儿不远。他把这本杂志办得充满诗意。那是在60 年代末期,个人电脑、桌面发排系统还没有出现,所以出版工具只有打字机、剪刀和宝丽来相机。这本杂志有点像印在纸上的Google ,但那是在Google 出现的35 年前;它充满了理想色彩,内容都是些非常好用的工具和了不起的见解。
斯图尔特和他的团队做了几期《全球目录》,快无疾而终的时候,他们出版了最后一期。那是在70 年代中期,我当时处在你们现在的年龄。在最后一期的封底有一张清晨乡间公路的照片,如果你喜欢搭车冒险旅行的话,经常会碰到的那种小路。在照片下面有一排字:物有所不足,智有所不明(Stay Hungry ,Stay Foolish. 求知若饥,虚心若愚)这是他们停刊的告别留言。物有所不足,智有所不明—— 我总是以此自省。现在,在你们毕业开始新生活的时候,我把这句话送给你们。

英文原文

I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. Truth be told, I never graduated from college, this is the closest I’ve ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That’s it. No big deal. Just three stories.

The first story is about connecting the dots.

I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out?

It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: “We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?” They said: “Of course.” My biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.

And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents’ savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn’t see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn’t interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.

It wasn’t all romantic. I didn’t have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends’ rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5? deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:

Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn’t have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can’t capture, and I found it fascinating.

None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, its likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.

Again, you can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something – your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. Because believing that the dots will connect down the road, will give you the confidence to follow your heart, even when it will lead you off the well-worn path, and that will make all the difference.

My second story is about love and loss.

I was lucky, I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation – the Macintosh – a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired. How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.

I really didn’t know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down – that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to dawn on me ? I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.

I didn’t see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.

During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I retuned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple’s current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.

I’m pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn’t been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don’t lose faith. I’m convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did.?You’ve got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle. As with all matters of the heart, you’ll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don’t settle.

My third story is about death.

When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: “If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you’ll most certainly be right.” It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: “If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?” And whenever the answer has been “No” for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.

Remembering that I’ll be dead soon is the most important tool I’ve ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything ? all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure – these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.

About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn’t even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor’s code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you’d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.

I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I’m fine now.

This was the closest I’ve been to facing death, and I hope its the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:

No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don’t want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life’s change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.

Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma – which is living with the results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of other’s opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.

When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960’s, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.

Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: “Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.” It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.

Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.

Thank you all very much.

 

乔布斯的一些失策之事

导语:美国科技资讯网站BusinessInsider今日撰文指出,作为苹果传奇的缔造者,史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)总与“睿智”两个字联系在一起,他在自己的职业生涯做出了一个又一个明智的决定。然而,人无完人,金无足赤,乔布斯也并非圣贤,过去也犯下了不少错误,人生也有许多遗憾。

以下即是乔布斯迄今所做过的十大失策之事:

1.拒绝承认大女儿

乔布斯23岁就当了父亲,但他却在很长一段时间里拒绝承认这个女儿。更为荒唐的是,乔布斯竟然在法庭文件中发誓,“自己没有生育能力,所以,从生理上讲不可能生儿育女。”这显然不是事实。当乔布斯因苹果而成为亿万富翁的时候,那个为他生下过女儿的女人却在依靠政府救济生活。乔布斯后来承认了这个错误,与大女儿的关系开始缓和。

2.让斯库利掌管苹果

当时乔布斯还很年轻,所以他可能认为让一个成熟的人来掌管苹果会更好。但是,约翰·斯库利(John Sculley)根本不懂苹果。最终,他还把乔布斯扫地出门。十年后,乔布斯谈到这段伤心的往事时说:“我还能说什么?我看错了人,他把我之前耗费在苹果上的十年心血全毁了。”

3.怒甩苹果股票

20世纪80年代中期,在被斯库利扫地出门以后,乔布斯一怒之下把他所持有的全部苹果股票都卖了。当时,这或许是个好主意,但今天看起来此举是多么的愚蠢。以当前苹果的股价计算,乔布斯当时卖掉的股票不知值多少钱。

4.NeXT业务模式失误

离开苹果后,乔布斯又创办了一家公司NeXT,从事电脑业务。这家公司专注于开发超高端、超昂贵的电脑工作站。但由于价格高得离谱,产品鲜有人问津,NeXT又转而开发软件。对于乔布斯来说,这是极为罕见的失误,但最终NeXT走出困境,乔布斯将它以4.29亿美元的价格出售给苹果,将NeXT开发的软件作为OSX系统的基本平台,而OSX系统后来又成为iOS。的基础。

5.与AT&T合作时间过长

如果乔布斯能早一年结束与AT&T独家代理协议,转而与其它运营商合作的话,那么今天美国智能手机市场将会是另外一番景象。摩托罗拉在2009年底发布了第一款Verizon版DROID手机。这是第一款采用Android操作系统的手机,也是Verizon应对苹果iPhone挑战的解决之道。如果苹果能在2010年初与Verizon合作,那么Verizon还会只销售Android智能手机吗?谷歌Android平台还会这么受欢迎吗?或许不会。乔布斯还在等待时机,苹果在智能手机市场的份额仍然保持不变。

6.苹果认股权丑闻

这是一个无法改变的事实,但乔布斯一度因认股权丑闻而险些下台。这似乎是一个无伤大雅的失误,其他公司CEO也会犯下同样的错误。但鉴于乔布斯并不是真正在乎钱,他这样做显然是愚蠢之举。

7.长期信任施密特

现在,苹果在几乎每个主要业务领域都有个强大的对手,那就是谷歌。两家公司都在给平板电脑、智能手机和台式机开发软件。苹果曾愚蠢地让谷歌前CEO埃里克·施密特(Eric Schmidt)持有苹果董事会一个席位,而且长达三年之久,令谷歌对苹果这些业务的运作模式了如指掌。

8.与AdMob交易告吹

2009年,当乔布斯还在犹豫要不要收购AdMob的时候,谷歌却抢先一步收购了这家公司。虽然交易告吹对苹果来说并不是末日来临,但确实对苹果打击很大。

9.“天线门”公关危机

苹果的声誉因去年的“天线门”事件严重受损。iPhone 4变成掉话与信号问题的“代名词”。

在这一事件爆发后,苹果官方尚没有任何说法和回应,有用户给乔布斯写了封电子邮件,抱怨说手一握住iPhone 4就导致信号剧降。乔布斯居然回复了这封邮件,但内容只有简单的一句话:“别那么拿不就行了。”

10.从未投身慈善事业

乔布斯的个人资产达数十亿美元,但他似乎要把所有的钱都留给自己,他和苹果从来没有进行过大规模捐助活动。或许,乔布斯私下里也向慈善机构捐过钱,但大多数富人捐钱都会留名,这样做有两点好处,一是能提升他们在公众心目的形象,二是能提高公众对慈善事业的关注度。

 

 

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